Characteristics of Elements

Karbon (C): Carbon, which is the basic alloying element of steels, takes its place in the structure during the production processes of steels. The amount of carbon is the factor that most influences the mechanical properties of steels. Carbon increases the yield and tensile strength of steel, reducing percentage elongation, formability, and weldability. In steels where workability is at the forefront, the amount of carbon should be kept low, and in cases where strength values should be high, the carbon content of the steel should be high.

Manganez (Mn): Manganez de karbon gibi üretim süreçlerinde çelik yapısında bulunan bir elementtir ve çeliğin mukavemetini arttırıcı etkiye sahiptir. In addition, it increases the ability to harden and weld. Austenite is a deciding element. The most important feature of manganese is that it makes MnS compound with sulfur and prevents the formation of iron sulfur FeS compound. FeS causes hot brittleness.

Silicon (Si): is located in steel because it is used as a deoxygenator. It increases the yield, tensile strength and elasticity of steel. As the amount of silicon in the steel structure decreases, the rate of scaling increases. Silicon is an inexpensive alloying element, widely used in spring steels that require high elasticity. In addition, it is an element that prevents electrical current loss.

Phosphorus (P): Phosphorus increases the yield and tensile strength of steel, worsens percentage elongation and bending properties too much, creates cold brittleness, increases machining ability. Phosphorus is an element remaining from the production processes in steel and is removed from the structure as much as possible due to its undesirable properties.

Sulfur (S): It has almost no effect on yield and tensile strength. However, its effect on the elongation and toughness of the material is very high. Sulfur significantly reduces the toughness and ductility of the material. It also adversely affects weldability. Sulfur combines with iron to form the FeS phase. Since this phase has a low melting temperature, it melts at the rolling temperature, causing hot brittleness. This negative effect is prevented by combining sulfur with manganese.

Chromium (Cr): It is an alloying element that increases the strength property of steel but, in turn, affects its flexibility to a very small extent in the negative direction. Chrome increases the heat resistance of steel. Prevents crusting -scale-making. The presence of high chromium in it increases the corrosion resistance of steel.

Nickel (Ni): It increases the impact toughness of nickel and its strength in annealed steels. Nickel is the second most important element of austenitic stainless steels after chromium. The amount of nickel in austenitic stainless steels is between 7-20%. Nickel austenite is a deciding element and as the name suggests, the lattice structure of austenitic stainless steels is KYM even at room temperature. KYM lattice structure gives austenitic stainless steels high formability.

Vanadyum (V): It increases the heat resistance of steel when used in very low amounts. Vanadium, alloy machine structural steels ensure that the grain structure is thin and the development of its physical properties. It also allows steel inserts to remain sharp for longer. He has a strong tendency to make carbide. Increases the tensile and yield strength of steel. It is used together with tungsten in machine construction and hot work steels, especially in vanadium chromium, air and machine construction steels.

Molybdenum (Mo): It increases the tensile strength of steel, especially with its heat resistance. A high amount of molybdenum makes it difficult to forg steels. Molybdenum is used more with chromium. The effect of molybdenum is similar to tungsten.

Lead (Pb): Reduces rollability. Causes ruptures during rolling, adversely affects surface quality. It causes problems in continuous castings. It increases the machining ability of lead steels, so it is used as an alloying element in vending steels.

Aluminum (Al): It is used to remove oxygen. It has an increasing effect on yield strength and impact toughness. The high amount of aluminum causes nozzle blockages in continuous castings. In addition, aluminum has a grain-reducing effect, it is the basic alloying element of nitriding steels. It is also used as a micro-alloy element that forms nitride and carbonitride in some micro-alloy steels.

Titanium (Ti): It has a grain-reducing effect like vanadium. However, this effect is higher than the effect of vanadium. It is used as a micro-alloy element in micro-alloy steels. In addition, it is used as a carbide-forming alloy element in stainless steels to eliminate the negative effect of chromium carbide.